There are JMX MBeans that allow you to determine the success or otherwise of a deployment.
One option is to use the Deployer MBean to actually perform the deployment. The call to the MBean will throw an exception if deployment fails. Another option is to continue performing the deployment as you are today, but to then query the MBeans to determine whether or not to deployment was successful by its presence or otherwise in the list of deployed artifacts.
The first of these two options is possible today, with the caveat that you'll have to have the deployer's JAR on the client's classpath so that DeploymentException is available. This will be improved soon under DMS-189. The second of these two options is largely there today, and will be completely in place once we've completed the move to the new deployer implementation.
Please take a look at these two options and see if they fit your needs today. If they don't, let us know, and we'll see what we can do to help.