The JavaDoc mentions some patterns
I don't know about an exhaustive list of patterns used within the framework (not sure it would be worth anyone's while to write one), but often the JavaDoc for a specific class will explain any key patterns in use. For example, the JavaDoc for org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.AbstractContro ller explains that it uses the "Template Method" design pattern.
I suggest you simply keep using the framework as you are, and investigate any new patterns as you come across them.
Personally (and this is not directed at you of course), I like to see a developer master the basics of coding before getting too fancy-shmancy with patterns. Too many people try to run before they can walk, by applying (and mis-applying) patterns just because they look cool on one's resume. The best solution is always the simplest one (as long as it's maintainable and where necessary, extensible).
"Now is the EJB of our discontent made glorious Spring"